The Mediating Effect of Gender Stereotypes on the Relationship between Values and Traditional Attitudes to Gender Roles
Keywords:gender, stereotype, competence, warmth, values, attitude
The present study aims to test the mediating role of gender stereotypes in the relationship between the values defined in Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory and traditional attitudes towards gender roles. For this purpose, analyzes were carried out with the data of 271 university students by using the "Individual Cultural Values Scale", "Gender Roles Attitude Scale," and "Competence and Warmth Stereotype Measurement" tools. Correlation analysis was performed to examine the relationships between the variables. The mediating role of gender stereotypes in the relationship between values and traditional attitudes towards gender roles was examined with the Process Macro plugin of the SPSS 24 program. As expected, masculinity, power distance, and collectivism values were found to show strong positive relationships with traditional attitude towards gender roles. As the adoption of the masculinity value increased, the identification of women with the competence stereotype decreased, and depending on this decrease, the adoption of the traditional attitude towards gender roles increased. While it is expected that defining men with the stereotype of warmth is a negative predictor of traditional attitudes toward gender roles, on the contrary, it has been observed that traditional attitudes increase as the definition of men with warmth increases. Accordingly, as masculinity and collectivism values increased, the definition of men with warmth increased. While defining men with warmth increased, the adoption of traditional attitudes toward gender roles increased. It has been discussed in line with the information in the literature that the warmth stereotype can be an element that contributes to the status of men in cultures with a high level of collectivism.
Abele, A. E. (2003). The dynamics of masculine-agentic and feminine-communal traits: findings from a prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(4), 768-776, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1688.
Ahn, N. Y., & Cunningham, G. B. (2017). Cultural values and gender equity on national Olympic committee boards. International Journal of Exercise Science, 10(6), 857-874.
Aktan, T., & Bilim, G. (2016). Kadınlara yönelik kalıpyargıların içerikleri: Kalıpyargı İçeriği Modeli çerçevesinde bir inceleme. Nesne Psikoloji Dergisi, 4(8), 147-182, https://doi.org/10.7816/nesne-04-08-01.
Ashmore, R. D., Del Boca, F. K., & Bilder, S. M. (1995). Construction and validation of the Gender Attitude Inventory, a structured inventory to assess multiple dimensions of gender attitudes. Sex Roles, 32(11), 753-785.
Augoustinos, M., & Walker, I. (1998). The construction of stereotypes within social psychology: From social cognition to ideology. Theory & Psychology, 8(5), 629-652, https://doi.org/10.1177/0959354398085003.
Augoustinos, M., Walker, I., & Donaghue N. (2014). Social cognition: An integrated introduction, Sage Publishing.
Bardi, A., Lee, J. A., Hofmann-Towfigh, N., & Soutar, G. (2009). The structure of intraindividual value change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(5), 913–929. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016617.
Binder, C. C. (2019). Redistribution and the individualism–collectivism dimension of culture. Social Indicators Research, 142(3), 1175-1192, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-018-1964-6.
Brannon, L. (2011). Gender: psychological perspectives. Routledge.
Brescoll, V. L., & Uhlmann, E. L. (2005). Attitudes toward traditional and nontraditional parents. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(4), 436-445, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00244.x.
Broverman, I. K., Vogel, S. R., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., & Rosenkrantz, P. S. (1972). Sex‐role stereotypes: A current appraisal. Journal of Social issues, 28(2), 59-78, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1972.tb00018.x.
Bye, H. H., Herrebrøden, H., Hjetland, G. J., Røyset, G. Ø., & Westby, L. L. (2014). Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55(5), 469-476, https://doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12141.
Caffaro, F., Ferraris, F., & Schmidt, S. (2014). Gender differences in the perception of honour killing in individualist versus collectivistic cultures: Comparison between Italy and Turkey. Sex Roles, 71(9), 296-318.
Cuddy, A. J., Fiske, S. T., Kwan, V. S., Glick, P., Demoulin, S., Leyens, J. P., ... & Ziegler, R. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48(1), 1-33, https://doi.org/10.1348/014466608X314935.
Cuddy, A. J., Wolf, E. B., Glick, P., Crotty, S., Chong, J., & Norton, M. I. (2015). Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 109(4), 622-635, http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspi0000027.
Cummings, W. K. (1982). The egalitarian transformation of postwar Japanese education. Comparative Education Review, 26(1), 16-35.
Désert, M., & Leyens, J. P. (2006). Social comparisons across cultures I: Gender stereotypes in high and low power. Guimond S. (Eds.). In Social comparison and social psychology: Understanding cognition, intergroup relations, and culture. Cambridge University Press.
DeWall, C. N., Altermatt, T. W., & Thompson, H. (2005). Understanding the structure of stereotypes of women: Virtue and agency as dimensions distinguishing female subgroups. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(4), 396-405, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2005.00239.x.
Dion, K. L. (2003). Prejudice, racism, and discrimination. Millon, T., & Lerner, M. J. (Eds.) In Handbook of psychology- Volume 5 Personality and social psychology. John Wiley & Sons.
Durante, F., Fiske, S. T., Kervyn, N., Cuddy, A. J., Akande, A., Adetoun, B. E., ... & Storari, C. C. (2013). Nations' income inequality predicts ambivalence in stereotype content: How societies mind the gap. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(4), 726-746, https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12005.
Eagly, A. H., & Mladinic, A. (1989). Gender stereotypes and attitudes toward women and men. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15(4), 543-558, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167289154008.
Eckes, T. (2002). Paternalistic and envious gender stereotypes: Testing predictions from the stereotype content model. Sex Roles, 47(3), 99-114, https://doi.org/0.1023/A:1021020920715.
Esses, V. M., Haddock, G., & Zanna, M. P. (1993). Values, stereotypes, and emotions as determinants of intergroup attitudes. In Affect, cognition and stereotyping (pp. 137-166). Academic Press.
Esteve, A., Schwartz, C. R., Van Bavel, J., Permanyer, I., Klesment, M., & Garcia, J. (2016). The end of hypergamy: Global trends and implications. Population and Development Review, 42(4), 615-625, https://doi.org/10.1111/padr.12012.
Fakher, K. N. (2018). Cultural values and marital satisfaction: do collectivism and gender role orientation affect marital satisfaction among Palestinian couples. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 6(2), 74-97, https://doi.org/10.25215/0602.009.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Glick, P. ve Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 878–902, https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3522.214.171.1248.
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 77-83, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.11.005.
Fiske, S. T., Xu, J., Cuddy, A. C., & Glick, P. (1999). (Dis) respecting versus (dis) liking: Status and interdependence predict ambivalent stereotypes of competence and warmth. Journal of Social Issues, 55(3), 473-489, https://doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00128.
Goldscheider, F., Goldscheider, C., & Bernhardt, E. M. (2011). Creating egalitarian families among the adult children of Turkish-and Polish-origin immigrants in Sweden. International Migration Review, 45(1), 68-88, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2010.00839.x.
Haddock, G., & Zanna, M. P. (1999). Cognition, affect, and the prediction of social attitudes. European Review of Social Psychology, 10(1), 75-99, : https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779943000026.
Haddock, G., Zanna, M. P., & Esses, V. M. (1993). Assessing the structure of prejudicial attitudes: The case of attitudes toward homosexuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), 1105- 1118.
Haddock, G., Zanna, M. P., & Esses, V. M. (1994). The (limited) role of trait‐laden stereotypes in predicting attitudes toward Native peoples. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33(1), 83-106, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1994.tb01012.x.
Haim, M., & Maurus, K. (2021). Stereotypes and sexism? Effects of gender, topic, and user comments on journalists’ credibility, 1-20, Journalism, https://doi.org/10.1177/146488492110639.
Hannover, B., Gubernath, J., Schultze, M., & Zander, L. (2018). Religiosity, religious fundamentalism, and ambivalent sexism toward girls and women among adolescents and young adults living in Germany. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-17, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02399.
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85(1), 4-40, https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2017.1352100.
Heilman, M. E., & Okimoto, T. G. (2007). Why are women penalized for success at male tasks?: the implied communality deficit. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 81-92, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.81.
Hitlin, S.,& Piliavin, J.A. (2004). Values: Reviving a dormant concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 359-393, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.30.012703.110640.
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies, 14(2), 75-89.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage publications.
Insights, H. (2018). Culture Compass: Find Your Way Across Cultures. Web: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/turkey /19 Haziran.
Insko, C. A., & Schopler, J. (1967). Triadic consistency: A statement of affective-cognitive-conative consistency. Psychological Review, 74(5), 361-376, https://doi.org/10.1037/h0020278.
Joffe, H., & Staerklé, C. (2007). The centrality of the self-control ethos in western aspersions regarding outgroups: A social representational approach to stereotype content. Culture & Psychology, 13(4), 395-418, https://doi.org/10.1177/1354067X07082750.
Kervyn, N., Yzerbyt, V., & Judd, C. M. (2010). Compensation between warmth and competence: Antecedents and consequences of a negative relation between the two fundamental dimensions of social perception. European Review of Social Psychology, 21(1), 155-187, https://doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2010.517997.
Kaasa, A. (2021). Merging Hofstede, Schwartz, and Inglehart into a single system. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 52(4), 339-353, https://doi.org/10.1177/00220221211011244.
Kuntz, A., Davidov, E., Schwartz, S. H., & Schmidt, P. (2015). Human values, legal regulation, and approval of homosexuality in Europe: A cross‐country comparison. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45(1), 120-134, https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2068.
Lee, I. C., Hu, F., & Li, W. Q. (2020). Cultural factors facilitating or inhibiting the support for traditional household gender roles. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 51(5), 333-352, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022120929089.
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224-253, https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224.
Moya, M., Poeschl, G., Glick, P., Paez, D., & Sedano, F. I. (2005). Sexisme, masculinité-féminité et facteurs culturels. Revue İnternationale de Psychologie Sociale, 18(1-2), 141-167.
Odenweller, K. G., & Rittenour, C. E. (2017). Stereotypes of stay-at-home and working mothers. Southern Communication Journal, 82(2), 57-72, https://doi.org/10.1080/1041794X.2017.1287214.
Okimoto, T. G., & Heilman, M. E. (2012). The “bad parent” assumption: How gender stereotypes affect reactions to working mothers. Journal of Social Issues, 68(4), 704-724, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2012.01772.x.
Parboteeah, K. P., Hoegl, M., & Cullen, J. B. (2008). Managers' gender role attitudes: A country institutional profile approach. Journal of International Business Studies, 39(5), 795-813.
Platow, M. J., Van Rooy, D., Augoustinos, M., Spears, R., Bar Tal, D., & Grace, D. M. (2019). Prejudice is about collective values, not a biased psychological system. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 47(1), 15-22.
Puspitasari, I. M., Garnisa, I. T., Sinuraya, R. K., & Witriani, W. (2020). Perceptions, knowledge, and attitude toward mental health disorders and their treatment among students in an Indonesian University. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 845-854, 13, https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S274337.
Reyna, C., Henry, P. J., Korfmacher, W., & Tucker, A. (2006). Examining the principles in principled conservatism: The role of responsibility stereotypes as cues for deservingness in racial policy decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(1), 109-128, https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199.
Rosenkrantz, P., Vogel, S., Bee, H., Broverman, I., & Broverman, D. M. (1968). Sex-role stereotypes and self-concepts in college students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 32(3), 287-295, https://doi.org/10.1037/h0025909.
Rudman, L. A., Greenwald, A. G., & McGhee, D. E. (2001). Implicit self-concept and evaluative implicit gender stereotypes: Self and ingroup share desirable traits. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(9), 1164-1178, https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201279009.
Saylık, A. (2019). Hofstede’nin kültür boyutları ölçeğinin Türkçeye uyarlanması; geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. Uluslararası Türkçe Edebiyat Kültür Eğitim (TEKE) Dergisi, 8(3), 1860-1881.
Schneider, D. J. (2004). The psychology of stereotyping, Guilford Press.
Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. M. Zanna (Eds.), In Advances in experimental social psychology volume 25: Academic Press.
Schwartz, S. H. (2005). Robustness and fruitfulness of a theory of universals in individual values. Tamayo & J. Porto (Eds.), In Values and work. Brasilia: Editora Universidade de Brasilia.
Schwartz, S. H., & Sagie, G. (2000). Value consensus and importance: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 31(4), 465-497, https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022100031004003.
Sigal, J., Gibbs, M. S., Goodrich, C., Rashid, T., Anjum, A., Hsu, D., ... & Pan, W. K. (2005). Cross-cultural reactions to academic sexual harassment: Effects of individualist vs. collectivist culture and gender of participants. Sex Roles, 52, 201-215.
Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1975). Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(1), 29-39, https://doi.org/10.1037/h0076857.
Vecchione, M., Schwartz, S. H., Davidov, E., Cieciuch, J., Alessandri, G., & Marsicano, G. (2020). Stability and change of basic personal values in early adolescence: A 2‐year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality, 88, 447-463. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12502.
Wade, M. L., & Brewer, M. B. (2006). The structure of female subgroups: An exploration of ambivalent stereotypes. Sex Roles, 54, 753-765.
Warner-Søderholm, G. (2012). Culture matters: Norwegian cultural identity within a Scandinavian context. Sage Open, 2(4), 1-12, 2158244012471350.
Wölfer, R., & Foroutan, N. (2022). Plurality resistance: Effects on intergroup relations and the mediating role of stereotypes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 87, 42-50, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2022.01.005.
Yoo, B., Donthu, N., & Lenartowicz, T. (2011). Measuring Hofstede's five dimensions of cultural values at the individual level: Development and validation of CVSCALE. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23(3-4), 193-210, https://doi.org/10.1080/08961530.2011.578059.
Zeyneloğlu, S., & Terzioğlu, F. (2011). Toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri tutum ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi ve psikometrik özellikleri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 40(2), 409-420.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Kadın/Woman 2000, Journal for Women's Studies
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [6 months] after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)