Özenli Vatandaşlık: Feminist Özen Etiğini Yeniden Politikleştirmek

  • Zeynep Gulru Goker Sabanci University


In the framework of feminist political theory, the article examines the contribution of care ethics to conceptions of political subjectivity and active citizenship. Borrowing insights from the feminist political critique of the masculine bias in the modern theories of universal moral reasoning, the article underlines the role of care and situated perspectives in the theory and practice of citizenship, yet departs from maternalist perspectives that lean towards essentialism and individualist perspectives that depoliticize care. The article assesses the implications of care ethics on gendered perspectives on peace and environmental movements on normative and practical levels, and argues that a conception of an egalitarian, democratic and caring citizenship that does not reproduce patriarchal gender roles can be developed with the help of a practice based democracy and citizenship education.


Ahoroni, S. B. (2017). Who Needs the Women and Peace Hypothesis? Rethinking Modes of
Inquiry on Gender and Conflict in Israel/Palestine. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 19(3): 311-326.

Allison, E. (2017). Toward a Feminist Care Ethic for Climate Change. Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 33(2): 152-8.

Bath, C. (2013). Conceptualising Listening to Young Children as an Ethic of Care in Early Childhood Education and Care. Chıldren & Society 27: 361-371.

Bell, C., O'Rourke, C. (2007). Does Feminism Need a Theory of Justice: An Introductory Essay. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1(1): 23-44.

Benhabib, S. (1987). The Generalized and the Concrete Other: The Kohlberg-Gilligan Controversy and Feminist Theory. In S. Benhabib and D. Cornell eds. Feminism as Critique: On the Politics of Gender in Late-Capitalist Societies (pp.77-95). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Bevington, T., Kurian, N., Cremin, H. (2019). Peace Education and Citizenship Education: Shared Critiques. A. Peterson et al. eds. The Palgrave Handbook of Citizenship and Education (pp.1-13). Springer.

Bickford, S. (1996). The Dissonance of Democracy: Listening, Conflict and Citizenship. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Broom, C., Bai, H. (2011). Exploring Deweyian Experiential Learning Pedagogy as Citizenship Development. Journal of Global Citizenship & Equity Education, 1(1): 44-59.

Caprioli, M., Boyer, M. A. (2001). Gender, Violence, and International Crisis. Journal of Conflict Resolution 45(4): 503-518.

Carreon, M.E., Moghadam, V.M. (2015). ‘Resistance is Fertile’: Revisiting Maternalist Frames Across Cases of Women’s Mobilization.” Women’s Studies International Forum 51: 19-30.

Çelik, M., Gündoğdu, K. (2007). Türkiye'de Okulöncesi Eğitimin Tarihsel Gelişimi. Kazım Karabekir Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 16: 172-190.

Dahlberg, G., Moss, P. (2005). Ethics and Politics in Early Childhood Education. London and New York: Routledge.
Dewey, J. (1939). Creative Democracy – The Task Before Us. Address given at a dinner in honour of John Dewey, New York, October 20 1939. Philosophieuni-muenchen.de. http://www.philosophie.uni-muenchen.de/studium/das_fach/warum_phil_ueberhaupt/dewey_creative_democracy.pdf, Son erişim tarihi: 21 Şubat 2018

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. New York: MacMillan Company.

Dietz, M. (1985). Citizenship with a Feminist Face: The Problem with Maternal Thinking. Political Theory 13(1):19-37.

Dietz, M. (1991). Hannah Arendt and Feminist Politics. In M. L. Shanley and C. Pateman eds. Feminist Interpretations of Political Theory (pp.232-253). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Elshtain, J.B. (1987). Women and War. New York: Basic Books.

Fisher, B., Tronto, J.C. (1990) Toward a Feminist Theory of Caring. In E.K. Abel and M. Nelson eds. Circles of Care (pp. 36-54). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Franke, K. M. (2006). Gendered Subjects of Transitional Justice, 15 Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 3(15): 813-828.

Fraser, N. (1990). Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy. Social Text (25/26): 56–80.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’sDevelopment. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Goldstein, L. S. (1998). More Than Gentle Smiles and Warm Hugs: Applying the Ethic of Care to Early Childhood Education. Journal of Research in Childhood Education 12(2): 244-261

Griffin, M. (2011). Developing Deliberative Minds- Piaget, Vygotsky and the Deliberative Democratic Citizen. Journal of Public Deliberation 7(1): 1-28.

King, R. J. H. (1991). Caring about Nature: Feminist Ethics and the Environment. Hypatia 6(1): 75-89.

Kittay, E. F. (2019). Caring about Care. Philosophy East and West 69(3): 856-863.

MacGregor, S. (2006). Beyond Mothering Earth: Ecological Citizenship and the Politics of Care. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press.

Mhajne, Anwar, Whetstone, C. (2018). The Use of Political Motherhood in Egypt’s Arab Spring Uprising and Aftermath. International Feminist Journal of Politics 20(1): 54-68.

Moss, P. (2007). Bringing Politics into the Nursery: Early Childhood Education as a Democratic Practice. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal 15(1): 5-20.

Mouffe, C. (1992). Feminism, Citizenship and Radical Democratic Politics. In J. Butler and J. W. Scott eds. Feminists Theorize the Political (pp.369-84). New York: Routledge.

Porter, E. (2000). Creating Dialogical Spaces in Northern Ireland. International Feminist Journal of Politics 2(2): 163-184.

Raghuram, P. (2016). Locating Care Ethics Beyond the Global North. ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies 15(3): 511-533.

Rinaldi, C. (2005). In Dialogue with Reggio Emilia, Listening, Researching and Learning. London and New York: Routledge.
Robinson, F. (1999). Globalizing Care: Ethics, Feminist Theory, and International Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Ruddick, S. (1989). Maternal Thinking: Toward a Politics of Peace. New York: Beacon Press.

Sevenjuijsen, S. (1998). Citizenship and the Ethics of Care Feminist Considerations on Justice, Morality, and Politics. London and New York: Routledge.

Şişman, M., Güleş, H., Dönmez, A. (2010). Demokratik Bir Okul Kültürü İçin Yeterlilikler Çerçevesi. Uşak Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 3(1): 167-182.

Tronto, J. (2017). There is an Alternative: Homines Curans and the Limits of Neoliberalism. International Journal of Care and Caring 1(1): 27-43.

Tronto, J.C. (2013). Caring Democracy: Markets, Equality and Justice. New York, NY: NYU Press.

Tronto, Joan C. (1993). Moral Boundaries: A Political Argument for an Ethic of Care. New York: Routledge.

Woodrow, C., Press, F. (2007). (Re) Positioning the Child in the Policy/Politics of Early Childhood. Educational Philosophy and Theory,39(3), 223-336.

Young, I. M. (1987). Impartiality and the Civic Public: Some Implications of Feminist Critiques of Moral and Political Theory. In Benhabib, S. and Cornell, D. eds. Feminism as Critique: On the Politics of Gender in Late-Capitalist Societies (pp. 57-76). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Young, Iris M. (1990). Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Zembylas, M. (2010). The Ethic of Care in Globalized Societies: Implications for Citizenship Education. Ethics and Education 5(3): 233-245.
How to Cite
Goker, Z. (2020). Özenli Vatandaşlık: Feminist Özen Etiğini Yeniden Politikleştirmek. Kadın/Woman 2000, Journal for Women’s Studies, 21(1), 89-106. https://doi.org/10.33831/jws.v21i1.142