Cities Are Not Gender Neutral: A Feminist Critique of the Production of Urban Spaces in Turkey
Keywords:cities, neoliberalism, discourse and space, feminist geography, Turkey
Contemporary cities and their socio-spatial structures are premised on the separation of home and work, the segregation of public and private space, and the gendered divisions of labour, they are designed in ways that thus feminist scholars argue that it help to sustain gender inequalities to the disadvantage of women. Feminist geographical research mainly examines the spatial constrains women face in their daily activities and the resulting difficulties in accessing parts of the city. In the relevant literature, these man-made environments are argued to be planned primarily by men from a male perspective and through the intrinsic nature of neo-liberal urban policies. This study aims to contribute a critical feminist analysis and a methodological approach to the debates on gendered spaces of cities, focusing on the Turkish context. In the present study, first, we explore the global and local spatial processes of male-dominated environment. And then, through critical discourse analysis, we examine the ways Turkey’s cities are shaped by gendered assumptions in the design and management of the built environment. The findings of the analysis indicate that neoliberal transformation and its urban policies not only play important roles in the production of gendered urban spaces, but also they legitimize gender inequalities in using or accessing urban spaces of individuals.
Akpınar A.; Bakay G. & Dedehayır H. (2009). Sunuş: Neden Kadın ve Mekân? İçinde, Akpınar A.; Bakay G. & Dedehayır H. (Der.), Kadın ve Mekân: Tutsaklık mı? Sultanlık mı? İstanbul: Turkuvaz Kitapçılık ve Yayıncılık: 11-17.
Anthamatten P. & Hazen H. (2010). An Introduction to the Geography of Health. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Beck U. (2014). Risk Toplumu: Başka Bir Modernliğe Doğru (Çev. Özdoğan K. & Doğan B. 2. Baskı. İstanbul: İthaki Yayınları.
Benko G. & Strohmayer U. (1997). Space & Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Bilgin N. (2014). Sosyal Bilimlerde İçerik Analizi: Teknikler ve Örnek Çalışmalar. 3. Baskı. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.
Bilton T.; Bonnett K.; Jones P.; Lawson T.; Skinner D.; Stanworth M. & Webster A. (2009). Sosyoloji (Çev. İnal K.; Kartal Y.; Özkale N.; Toraman K.; Özkan Y. & Güngen A.R. Siyasal Kitabevi: Ankara.
Bondi L. (1998). Gender, Class, and Urban Space: Public and Private Space in Contemporary Urban Landscapes. Urban Geography, 19(2): 160-185.
Brenner N. & Theodore N. (2002). Cities and the Geographies of “Actually Existing Neoliberalism”. Antipode, 34(3): 349-379.
Cornwall A.; Gideon J. & Wilson K. (2008). Introduction: Reclaiming Feminism: Gender and Neoliberalism. IDS Bulletin, 39(6): sayfa no.1-9.
Hall S.; Massey D. & Rustin M. (2013). After Neoliberalism: Analysing the Present. Soundings: A Journal of Politics and Culture, 53: 8-22.
Hart C. & Lukeš D. (2009). Cognitive Linguistics in Critical Discourse Analysis: Application and Theory. Cambridge: Scholars Publishing.
Jarvis H.; Kantor P. & Cloke J. (2009). Cities and Gender. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Jarvis H. (2007). Home Truths About Careless Competitiveness. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31 (1): 207-214.
Jensen O.B. (1997). Discourse Analysis & Socio-spatial Transformation Processes: A Theoretical Framework for Analysing Spatial Planning. Working Paper No: 61, Aalborg: University of Newcastle, School of Architecture, Planning & Landscape, Global Urban Research Unit.
Knox P. & Pinch S. (2010). Urban Social Geography: An Introduction. Sixth Ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Knox P. & Pinch S. (2006). Urban Social Geography: An Introduction. Fifth edition. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Ledwith S.; Woods R. & Darke J. (2000). Women and the City. İçinde, Darke J.; Ledwith S. & Woods R. (Eds.), Women and the City: Visibility and Voice in Urban Space. New York: Palgrave: 1-10.
Lefebvre H. (1991). The Production of Space (Çev. Nicholson S. D.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
McDowell L. (2007). Gender, Identity and Space: Understanding Feminist Geographies. Third edition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
McDowell L. (2004). Work, Workfare, Work / Life Balance and Ethic of Care. Progress in Human Geography, 28(2): 145-163.
McLean H. (2014). Digging into the Creative City: A Feminist Critique. Antipode, 46(3): 669-690.
Moghadam V. M. (1993). Modernizing Women: Gender & Social Change in the Middle East. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Molyneux M. (2008). The “Neoliberal Turn” and the New Social Policy in Latin America: How Neoliberal, How New? Development and Change, 39(5): 775-797.
Molyneux M. (2006). Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa / Oportunidades, Mexico’s Conditional Transfer Programme. School Policy and Administration, 40(4): 425-449.
Pasin B. (2013). Femaleness, Femininity and Feminotopia: The Female Hamam as a Homosocial Space. Kadın / Woman 2000: Kadın Araştırmaları Dergisi / Journal for Women’s Studies, 14 (1): 55-77.
Richardson T. & Jensen O B. (2003). Linking Discourse and Space: Towards a Cultural Sociology of Space in Analysing Spatial Policy Discourses. Urban Studies, 40(1): 7-22.
Ritzdorf M. (1989). The Political Economy of Urban Service Distribution. İçinde, Rich R. (Ed.),The Politics of Urban Public Services. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Roberston R. (2012). Globalisation or Glocalisation? Journal of International Communication, 18(2): 191-208.
Ruiz J.R. (2009). Sociological Discourse Analysis: Methods and Logic. Forum: Qualitative Social Research Sozialforschung, 10(2). Internet adresi: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/1298/2 882. Erişim tarihi:18.12.2015.
Siyasi Haber (2016). Haberler: Erkek Taraftar Kadın Mankene Galatasaray Forması Giydirip Yaktı. Internet adresi: http://siyasihaber2.org/erkek-taraftar-kadin-mankene-galatasaray-formasi-giydirip-yakti. Erişim: 15.2.2016.
Spain D. (2005). Space and Status. İçinde, Kleniewski N. (Ed.), Cities and Society. Malden: Blackwell Publishing: 43-53.
Şentürk L. (2013). Kanaatlerden Yoruma Mimarlık ve Kent: ‘Kısıtlanıyoruz Hayatta Eğer Cinsiyetin Bayansa’. Kadın/Woman 2000, Journal for Women’s Studies, 14(1): 29-54.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2015). Human Development Report 2015: Work for Human Development. New York: UN.
Valentine G. (2005). Geography and Ethics: Moral Geographies? Ethical Commitment in Research and Teaching. Progress in Human Geography, 29(4): 483-487.
Van Dijk T. (2015). Söylem ve İdeoloji: Çok Alanlı Bir Yaklaşım. İçinde, (Haz. Çoban B. & Özarslan Z) (Çev. Ateş N.) 2. Baskı. Söylem ve İdeoloji. İstanbul: Su Yayınevi:15-97.
Walby S. (2014). Patriyarka Kuramı (Çev: H Osmanoğlu). Ankara: Dipnot Yayınları.
Wilson E. (1991). The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women. London: Verso.
Yüceşahin M.M. (2016). Toplumsal Cinsiyet ve Mekânın Karşılıklı İlişkisi: Patriyarkanın Sosyal Mekânı Örgütleyişine Dair Bir Tartışma. Kadın/Woman 2000, Journal for Women’s Studies, 17(1): 73-101.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [6 months] after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access)