Fortifications of Enez (Ainos) and Urban Morphology

Architectural, Historical and Epigraphic Evidence Revisited


  • Hasan Sercan Sağlam


Architectural history, City walls, Epigraphy, Fortifications, Urban morphology


The ancient city of Ainos in Enez, modern Turkey, was a fortified settlement starting from Classical Antiquity. It kept this characteristic also during the Middle Ages. In this context, its present castle that dominates the site is undoubtedly the most prominent monument today. Moreover, recent studies argued the underground discovery of Hellenistic city walls, which once surrounded the triangular peninsula of Ainos before the Aegean Sea. However, since certain deficiencies are noticed in the literature, this paper critically reconsiders the architectural, historical and epigraphic evidence for the Late Medieval urban morphology of Ainos in comparison to its fortifications and also the topography, as fundamental delimiting elements. The outcomes suggest that a triangular fortification system existed until the late 13th century, which was most probably formed during refortification of a significant urban center of the Thrace region in Late Antiquity, and was eventually replaced by the Castle of Enez.




How to Cite

Sağlam, H. S. (2023). Fortifications of Enez (Ainos) and Urban Morphology: Architectural, Historical and Epigraphic Evidence Revisited. Journal of Urban Research and Development, 4(01), 29–36. Retrieved from